Bibliography and Sources:
Notes: The Qovanlou-Qajar (Quyunlu) line of the Qajars (Kadjars) has two main branches, 1) that of Shah Qoli Khan Qajar-Qovanlou through Fath Ali Khan Qajar-Qovanlou and his descendants (later, the Ruling House), and 2) that of Mussa Khan Qajar-Qovanlou through Eskandar Khan Qajar-Qovanlou and his children. Below is the genealogy of Mussa Khan's descendants. That of Shah Qoli Khan has been outlined through the genealogies of the Imperial House from discussions of their origins to that of the descendants of the rulers from Fath Ali Shah onwards, but as is evident from the list below, the two lines intersect and become one at several junctures, most prominently with Fatemeh Khanom, daughter of Eskandar Khan Qajar Qovanlou marrying Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, and again and again. There are also other Qovanlou-Qajar lines still. The research will be published in these pages when completed.
Ancestor: Mussa Khan Qajar Qovanlou. His children:
1. Eskandar Khan Qajar Qovanlou. He had four sons and several daughters, as follows:
1.1 Issa Khan
1.2 Mussa Khan
1.3 Mohammad Khan Qajar Qovanlou, Amir Kabir
1.4 Soleyman Khan Qajar Qovanlou E'tezad ed-Dowleh
1.5 Fatemeh Khanom, wife of Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, son of Fath Ali Khan Qajar Qovanlou.
2. .... Other children of Mussa Khan Qajar Qovanlou?
1.1 Issa Khan. His descendants?
1.2 Mussa Khan. His descendants?
1.3 Mohammad Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Amir Kabir," Governor of Erevan (18th century). His children:* (See Essay below also)
1.3.1 Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou
1.3.2 Hassan Khan Qajar Qovanlou "Yuzbashi"
1.3.3 Amir Soleyman Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Amir-Kabir" "Nezam-ed-Dowleh" "E'tezad-od-Dowleh"
1.3.4 Assiyeh Khanom Qajar Qovanlou
1.3.5 Morassa Khanom Qajar Qovanlou
1.3.1 Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou (b. 1740-d. 1830), Governor of Qazvin, Khorasan, and Erevan. His son:
184.108.40.206 Mohammad (Mehdi) Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou m. Shirin Jan Khanom, 29th daughter of Fath Ali Shah. Descendants?
1.3.1.? Other children of Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou?
1.3.2 Hassan Khan Qajar Qovanlou "Yuzbashi." His descendants ?
1.3.3 Amir Soleyman Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Amir-Kabir" "Nezam-ed-Dowleh" "E'tezad-od-Dowleh."(origin of the Amirsoleymani family name). (b.1769-d.1805) He married a Zand Princess. His children:
220.127.116.11 Amir Mohammad Qassem Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Amir-Kabir."
18.104.22.168 Esma'il Khan Qajar Qovanlou
22.214.171.124 Daughter .... Khanom Qajar Qovanlou
126.96.36.199 Amir Mohammad Qassem Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Amir-Kabir" (b. ? - d. 1831), m. Begom Jan Khanom, 2nd daughter of Fath Ali Shah. Their children:
188.8.131.52.1 Amir Issa Khan Vali, "E'temad-ed-Dowleh" "Ehtesham ed-Dowleh"
184.108.40.206.2 Soleyman Khan, "Khan-e Khanan"
220.127.116.11.3 Malek Jahan Khanom, "Mahd-e Olia" (III)
18.104.22.168.4 Mussa Khan Qajar Qovanlou
22.214.171.124.1 Amir Issa Khan Vali, "E'temad ed-Dowleh" "Ehtesham-ed-Dowleh." His descendants:
126.96.36.199.1.1 Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Vali." His descendants?
188.8.131.52.1.2 Mohammad Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Majd-e Saltaneh." His descendants?
184.108.40.206.1.3 Allah Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou. His son:
220.127.116.11.1.3.1 Soltan Mohammad Mirza. His descendants?
18.104.22.168.1.4 Mehdi Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Majd-ed-Dowleh," Il-Khan. His children from several marriages:
22.214.171.124.1.4.1 Shams-od-Din Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Tamjid-ed-Dowleh" Amirsoleymani
126.96.36.199.1.4.2 ......., "Majd-os-Saltaneh" Amirsoleymani
188.8.131.52.1.4.3 Mohammad Ali Khan Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
184.108.40.206.1.4.4 Abdol Hossein Khan Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
220.127.116.11.1.4.5 Allah Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani. Married Banou Khanom Zolfaghari. Their children:
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Kamran Amirsoleymani
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Lili Amirsoleymani
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Ladan Amirsoleymani
18.104.22.168.1.4.6 Gholam Hossein Khan Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
22.214.171.124.1.4.7 Mostafa Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
126.96.36.199.1.4.8 Morteza Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
188.8.131.52.1.4.9 Eftekhar-ed-Dowleh Khanom Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
184.108.40.206.1.4.10 Sorour Aghdas Khanom Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
220.127.116.11.1.4.11 Nezhat-ed-Dowleh Khanom Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
18.104.22.168.1.4.12 Qodrat-ed-Dowleh Khanom Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
22.214.171.124.1.4.13 Afagh -ed-Dowleh Khanom Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
126.96.36.199.1.4.14 Monir-Azam Khanom Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
188.8.131.52.1.4.15 Ezzat-ed-Dowleh Khanom Qajar Qovanlou Amirsoleymani
184.108.40.206.1.4.? Other children?
220.127.116.11.1.5 Ja'far Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlu, "Jalal-ol-Molk," "Moi'n-os-Soltan," Master of the Royal Household of Nasser-ed-Din Shah, m. Kaukab-os-Saltaneh, eldest daughter of Mass'ud Mirza "Zell-es-Soltan." His son:
18.104.22.168.1.5.1 Azizollah Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Jalal-ol-Molk." His descendants?
22.214.171.124.1.6 Hossein Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Sa'id-e Homayoun." His descendants?
126.96.36.199.1.7 Hassan Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Shebl-os-Saltaneh." His descendants?
188.8.131.52.2 Soleyman Khan, "Khan-e Khanan." Marries his cousin Malekzadeh Khanom, daughter of Mohammad Qoli Mirza "Molk Ara" and Golpari Saray Malek Qajar, daughter of Morteza Qoli Khan, brother of Agha Mohammad Khan. His children:
184.108.40.206.2.1 Anoushirvan "Shir" Khan, "Eyn-ol-Molk" "E'tezad-od-Dowleh." Ancestor of the Sepahbody family. (For descendants see Sepahbody family in these pages). (Also listed below under 220.127.116.11.1)
18.104.22.168.2.2 Mohammad Ali Khan Qajar Qovanlou. (Half-brother of Shir Khan). His descendants? (Also listed below under 22.214.171.124.1)
126.96.36.199.3 Malek Jahan Khanom, "Mahd-e Olia" (III), m. Mohammad Shah Qajar, mother of:
188.8.131.52.3.1 Nasser-ed-Din Shah Qajar
184.108.40.206.3.2 Malekzadeh Khanom, "Ezzat ed-Dowleh." Born 1836. She married first at the age of 14, Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir Atabak-e Azam Sadr-e Azam (Grand-Vizier) of Nasser ed-Din Shah, and had two daughters from this marriage: Taj al-Molouk "Omm ol-Khaghan" and Hamdam al-Molouk. She married second, Mirza Kazem Khan Nezam-ol-Molk son of Mirza Agha Khan Nouri Sadr-e Azam (Grand-Vizier) of Nasser ed-Din Shah after Amir Kabir's demise. She married third, her cousin Anoushirvan "Shir Khan" Eyn-ol-Molk, as his second wife, divorcing her husband Mirza Kazem Khan Nezam ol-Molk. She married fourth, Mirza Hossein Khan Sepahsalar's brother, Yahya Khan Moayyer ed-Dowleh. She married fifth and last, Mirza Hossein Khan's secretary, Mirza Nasrollah Khan. Ezzat-ed-Dowleh's daughter, Taj-al-Molouk Omm-al-Khaqan, married the crown prince, Mozaffar-al-Din Mirza and bore him a son, Mohammad-Ali Mirza, later Shah. She died in 1905.
220.127.116.11.4 Mussa Khan Qajar Qovanlou. His son:
18.104.22.168.4.1 Ali Reza Khan Qajar Qovanlou "Azod-ol-Molk" (Azdelmolk), "Il-Khan" "Nayeb-Saltaneh." (b. ?- d. 1910) For his descendants please see Azdelmolk's Genealogy in these pages.)
22.214.171.124 Esma'il Khan Qajar Qovanlou. He marries his cousin Khadijeh Khanom, 10th daughter of Fath Ali Shah Qajar and Assieh Khanom Qajar Qovanlou (daughter of Mohammad Khan Qajar Qovanlou, see below). Their children: nine daughters and one son:
126.96.36.199.1 Ahmad Khan. (Also listed below under 188.8.131.52)
184.108.40.206 Daughter, married as his Galin Khanom, Abdollah Mirza Dara, 11th son of Fath Ali Shah by Kolthoum Khanom.
1.3.4 Assiyeh Khanom Qajar Qovanlou, 2nd wife of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Their children:
220.127.116.11 Mohammad Qoli Mirza "Molk Ara" (born 1203-1788-9--d. ?), ancestor of Molk Ara family. He married Golpari Sara Malek Qajar, daughter of Morteza Qoli Khan Qajar, half-brother of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. Their daughter:
18.104.22.168.1 Malekzadeh Khanom, marries her cousin, Soleyman Khan, Khan-e Khanan (See above 22.214.171.124.2). Her son:
126.96.36.199.1.1.1 Anoushirvan "Shir" Khan, "Eyn-ol-Molk" "E'tezad-od-Dowleh." Ancestor of the Sepahbody family. (For descendants see Sepahbody family in these pages). (Also listed above under 188.8.131.52.2)
184.108.40.206 Khadijeh Khanom, 10th daughter of Fath Ali Shah, m. her cousin Esma'il Khan Qajar Qovanlou, son of Amir Soleyman Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "E'tezad-ed-Dowleh" "Amir-Kabir." (Also listed above under 220.127.116.11) They had nine daughters and one son:
18.104.22.168.1 Ahmad Khan.
22.214.171.124 Zeynab Khanom, 11th daughter of Fath Ali Shah, m. her cousin Mohammad Baqer Khan (Merrikh Shah) Qajar, son of Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlu "Koutchek," brother of Fath Ali Shah. Their children: (also listed below under 126.96.36.199 children of Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Koutchek.")
188.8.131.52.1 Asadollah Khan. His descendants?
184.108.40.206.2 Hossein Khan. His descendants?
220.127.116.11.3 Mohammad Hassan Khan. His descendants?
18.104.22.168.4 Daughter. Her descendants?
1.3.5 Morassa Khanom Qajar Qovanlou, m. Mohammad Ebrahim Khan Sardar Qajar Davalou. Their children:
22.214.171.124 Mohammad Nasser Khan Qajar Davalou Zahir ed-Dowleh. His son:
126.96.36.199.1 Mirza Ali Khan Safa Zahir ed-Dowleh "Safa Ali Shah"
His descendants ?
188.8.131.52.2 Daughter, married Sahebgheran Mirza, 50th son of Fath Ali Shah.
Their descendants ?
1.3.? Other children of Mohammad Khan Qajar Qovanlou?
1.4 Soleyman Khan Qajar Qovanlou E'tezad ed-Dowleh
1.4.? .... Descendants of Soleyman Khan?
1.5 Fatemeh Khanom, wife of Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, son of Fath Ali Khan Qajar Qovanlou, ancestor of the Qajar Ruling House. They had two sons and one daughter:
1.5.1 Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. No issue.
1.5.2 Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar, "Djahansouz Shah." He married ... Khanom, daughter of Mohammad Khan Ezz-od-Dinlou Qajar, "Mahd-e Olia" (I). He has two children:
184.108.40.206 Fath Ali Khan Qajar, "Baba Khan." Later Fath Ali Shah Qajar. His descendants:
220.127.116.11.1 .... 18.104.22.168.108 See Fath Ali Shah Qajar's Descendants in these pages.
22.214.171.124 Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Koutchek." His descendants:
126.96.36.199.1 Zeyn-el-Abedin Khan Qajar Qovanlu. He marries his cousin Omm Salmeh Khanom, 4th daughter of Fath Ali Shah by Ziba-Chehr Khanom Gorji "Galin Khanom," mother of Mohammad Ali Dowlatshah. They had two children:
188.8.131.52.1.1 Mohammad Ja'far Mirza. His descendants?
184.108.40.206.1.2 Daughter. Her descendants?
220.127.116.11.2 Mohammad Bagher Khan Qajar Qovanlou, "Merrikh Shah." He marries his cousin Zeynab Khanom, 11th daughter of Fath Ali Shah by Assiyeh Khanom (daughter of Mohammad Khan Qajar Qovanlu[See above 18.104.22.168]); sister of Mohammad Qoli Mirza Molkara and of Khadijeh Khanom. They had four children, one daughter and three sons:
22.214.171.124.2.1 Asadollah Khan. His descendants?
126.96.36.199.2.2 Hossein Khan. His descendants?
188.8.131.52.2.3 Mohammad Hassan Khan. His descendants?
184.108.40.206.2.4 Daughter. Her descendants?
220.127.116.11.3 Mussa Khan Qajar Qovanlou. He marries his cousin Ezzat-Nessa Khanom, 13th daughter of Fath Ali Shah, and sister of Teyghoun Khanom. From that marriage issue four children, three daughters and one son:
18.104.22.168.3.1 Allah Qoli Khan. His descendants?
22.214.171.124.3.2 Daughter. Her descendants?
126.96.36.199.3.3 Daughter. Her descendants?
188.8.131.52.3.4 Daughter. Her descendants?
184.108.40.206.? Other children of Koutchek Khan?
1.5.3 Bibi Khanoum. Married first, Sadeq Khan Zand. Second, Ali Morad Khan Zand. Her son:
220.127.116.11 Khanad Khan. His descendants?
1.? Other children of Eskandar Khan Qajar Qovanlou?
This essay by George Bournoutian from the Encyclopedia Iranica submitted by Amir Ali Sardar Iravani, descendant of Hossein Qoli Khan son of Mohammad Khan Qajar Qovanlu Sardar Iravani. Amir Ali Sardar Iravani can be contacted at: email@example.com
HOSAYN QOLI KHAN SARDAR-E IRAVANI, important governor in the early Qajar period (b. ca. 1155/1742, d. 1246/1831). He was the son of Mohammad Khan Qajar, a member of the Qovanlu clan of the Qajars, who in the eighteenth century had governed Iravan (Erevan, q.v.). His birthplace is unknown. His occasional use of the title of Qazvini could indicate Qazvin as a possible birthplace, but more probably the association relates to his successful campaign against Sadeq Khan Shaqaqi near Qazvin and his subsequent governorship there. Hosaynqoli is first mentioned as being in Shiraz as a member of the household of the heir-apparent, Baba Khan (later Fath-Ali Shah), where he served as the head page (qollar-aqasi; Bamdad, Rejal I, p. 402). After his accession to the throne, Fath- Ali Shah rewarded Hosaynqoli for his loyalty in a number of ways: by granting him several posts, including the governorship of Khorasan (Sepehr, I, pp. 119-24), by marrying a sister of Hosaynqoli, by asking for the hand of one of Hosaynqoli's daughters for Abbas Mirza (q.v.), the heir to the throne (Ormanian, III, p. 3481) and, by agreeing to the marriage of his 29th daughter to Mohammadqoli, the son of Hosaynqoli (Bamdad, Rejal I, p. 497).
Requiring a strong and loyal governor to command the fortress of Erevan against the Russian advances during the first Russo-Persian War (1804-1813), the shah appointed Hosaynqoli as the commander-in-chief (sardar) of the Persian forces north of the Araxes (Aras) River (Freygang, p. 284). A year later, Hosaynqoli's brother, Hasan Khan, whose reputation for bravery had earned him the sobriquet saru aslan ("yellow lion"), arrived in Erevan, but he continued to harass the Russian forces on the borders of Georgia (Hedayat, Rawzat al-safa IX, pp. 388-90). During his twenty-year tenure Hosaynqoli tried to win the goodwill of the population, especially of the Armenians. The rightful head of the Armenian Church, Catholicos Daniel, whose seat was usurped by Catholicos David, was reinstated at the Holy See of Ejmiatsin (Uch-Kilisa) outside of Erevan (Bournoutian, 1992, p. 78). He kept good relations with Melik Sahak Aqamal, the secular chief of the Armenians of the khanate of Erevan, and was instrumental in arranging the marriage of Sahak's daughter to the renegade Georgian prince, Alexander Batonishvili, a staunch enemy of the Russians. Foreign travelers call him one of the most powerful and wealthy chiefs in Persia with as much authority as Abbas Mirza (Morier, p. 313; Fraser, I, p. 227; Ker Porter, I, p. 202; Kotzebue, p. 105).
Hosaynqoli Khan did not have any members of his family as hostages in Tehran, had the right to mint coins, and had the rare opportunity of keeping a large part of the revenue for defense purposes. He encouraged trade and created a stable administration. Even Armenian and Russian sources, who have little good to say about the Persian khans in Transcaucasia, praise Hosaynqoli for being kind, honest, noble, conscientious, and just (Abovian, III, p. 58; Haxthausen, pp. 265-66). In the long run, the ill-organized Persian army was no match for the full force of the experienced Russian army, veterans of the Napoleonic wars. The Second Russo-Persian War (1826-28) resulted in the Treaty of Turkamanchay and the annexation of the khanates of Erevan and Nakchivan (Chokur-e Sad) to Russia. Although Hasan was captured, held for four months in Tiflis, and released under article XIII of the Treaty of Turkamanchay (Sepehr, I, p. 379), Hosaynqoli, who had avoided capture was, according to Persian sources, honored by the shah and died a prosperous man at the age of ninety (Bamdad, Rejal I, p. 404). Armenian and Western sources, however, claim that he died in a stable, a poor and broken man (Alboyajian, p. 379; Lynch, I, p. 217). Unlike other Transcaucasian khans, Hosaynqoli did not make a deal with the Russians and managed to thwart their efforts for two decades. Russia's anger was demonstrated in article XII of the Treaty and Turkamachay (1 828), which specifically deprived him and his brother of the right to sell or exchange their property in Erevan—a right granted to all others (Hurewitz, I, 99).
Bibliography: Kh. Abovian, Erkeri liakatar zhoghovatsu III, Erevan, 1947. A. Alboyajian, Patmakan Hayastani shamannere, Cairo, 1950. George Bournoutian, "Husayn Qul Khan Qazvn, Sardar of Erevan: A Portrait of a Qajar Administrator," Iranian Studies 9, 1976, pp. 163-79. Idem, The Khanate of Erevan Under Qajar Rule, 1795-1828, Costa Mesa, Calif., 1992. James Baillie Fraser, Narrative of a Journey into Khorasan in the Years 1821 and 1822, London, 1825. Fredrika Kudriavaskaia von Freygang, Letters from the Caucasus and Georgia [by Frederika von Freygang]: to which are added, the account of a journey into Persia in 1812 [by Wilhelm von Freygang] . . . , tr. from French, London, 1823. August Franz von Haxthausen, Transcaucasia, Sketches of the Nations and Races . . . , tr. from German by J. E. Taylor, London, 1854. J. C. Hurewitz, Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East. A Documentary Record, 1535-1914, Princeton, 1956. Robert Ker Porter, Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babvlonia . . . , London, 1821-22. Moritz von Kotzebue, Narrative of a Journey into Persia: in the suite of the Imperial Russian Embassy, in the Year 1817, tr. from German, London, 1891. Henry Finnis B. Lynch, Armenia, Travels and Studies, London, 1812. James Morier, A Second Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor to Constantinople, London, 1812. M. Ormanian, Azgapatum, III, Jerusalem, 1927. Mohammad-Taqi Sepehr (Lesan-al-Molk) Naseko al-tawariko I, Tehran, repr., 1965. I. Shopen (Chopin), Istoricheski pamyatnik sostoyaniya Armyansko oblasti v epokhu eo prisoedineniya k Rossisko imperii, St. Petersburg, 1852. (GEORGE A. BOURNOUTIAN)
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